1. A Generalized Physiologically Based Kinetic Model for Fish for Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2022
Jiaqi Wang, Tom M. Nolte, Stewart F. Owen, Rémy Beaudouin, A. Jan Hendriks and Ad M.J. Ragas
An increasing number of pharmaceuticals found in the environment potentially impose adverse effects on organisms such as fish. Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models are essential risk assessment tools, allowing a mechanistic approach to understanding chemical effects within organisms. However, fish PBK models have been restricted to a few species, limiting the overall applicability given the countless species. Moreover, many pharmaceuticals are ionizable, and fish PBK models accounting for ionization are rare. Here, we developed a generalized PBK model, estimating required parameters as functions of fish and chemical properties. We assessed the model performance for five pharmaceuticals (covering neutral and ionic structures). With biotransformation half-lives (HLs) from EPI Suite, 73 and 41% of the time-course estimations were within a 10-fold and a 3-fold difference from measurements, respectively. The performance improved using experimental biotransformation HLs (87 and 59%, respectively). Estimations for ionizable substances were more accurate than any of the existing species-specific PBK models. The present study is the first to develop a generalized fish PBK model focusing on mechanism-based parameterization and explicitly accounting for ionization. Our generalized model facilitates its application across chemicals and species, improving efficiency for environmental risk assessment and supporting an animal-free toxicity testing paradigm.